CONTENTS AND SUMMARIES

Chapter 1.


ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES OF DISEASE

Human activities and environment.



Chapter 2.


POPULATION, URBANIZATION, RESOURCES AND WELLBEING

Summary

Introduction: excess population

Urbanization in the world today

The population-wealth-disease paradigm

The main international organizations dealing with the environmental problems of the planet

The GNP (Gross National Product): is it really a dependable measure of progress and wellbeing ?

Energy consumptions

Conclusions

Bibliography




Chapter 3.


CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENT

Summary

Industrial production, fuels burnt by industries and vehicles, exhaust gases, the home environment

Carbon monoxide

Sulphur oxides

Nitrogen oxides

Non conventional pollutants

Home environment and chemical products

Conclusions

Bibliography


 

 
Chapter 4.


CARBON DIOXIDE AND GREEN-HOUSE EFFECT: CLIMATE CHANGES. OZONE. DESERTIFICATION

 
Summary

Introduction

Climate and atmosphere

The green-house effect

Ozone hole and ozone pollution

Desertification

Initiativees aiming at air polluting emission limitation

Conclusions

Bibliography




 
Chapter 5.


WASTES AND RECYCLING

Summary

Introduction

The Ronchi decree (italian legislation)

The italian situation

A. Prevention: reduction of amounts and dangers of the produced wastes

B. Recycling and Reuse

    B1) Recycling of glass

    B2) Recycling of paper and cardboard

    B3) Recycling of textiles and shoes

    B4) Recycling of tyres

    B5) Recycling of steel

    B6) Recycling of aluminum

    B7) Recycling of plastics

    B8) Technological wastes

C. Final fate of waste

Conclusions

Bibliography


 

 
Chapter 6.


PHYSICAL AGENTS AND DISEASE: RADIATIONS AND TRAUMA

 
Summary

Introduction

Radiations

    Atomic bombs and nuclear accidents

    Ultraviolet radiation

    Elettromagnetic fields

Traumas

    home accidents

    road accidents

Bibliography


 


Chapter 7.


ECOLOGY OF MICRORGANISMS, MICROBIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASES

 
Summary

Introduction

1 Classification of the infective agents

2 How does the body respond to infective agents?

3 Does the environment affect growth and diffusion of pathogens?

4 Disease transmitted by animals (zoonoses)

5 Disease transmitted by water and foods

6 Respiratory diseases

7 Infancy and childhood infections

8 Sexually transmitted diseases

9 What is the biological warfare and how could it happen?

Conclusions


 

 
Chapter 8.


ENVIRONMENTAL AND CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS

 
Summary

Introduction

Chemical carcinogenesis: a short story

We and carcinogens, every day

Metabolism of carcinogens

The REACH program of the European Commission

Conclusions


 

 
Chapter 9.


IMMUNOLOGY AND ALLERGIES

 
Summary

Introduction

A very powerful defense system

How can the immune system go awry

What allergies are

How allergies arise

Allergies are increasing in rich countries

What changed in the environment, respect to immunity

Diagnosis and treatment of allergies

Living and coping with allergies

Conclusions

Bibliography


 

 
Chapter 10.


Gaseous pollutants and tobacco smoke

 
Summary

Introduction

Gaseous pollutants

Vehicular traffic

Carbon monoxide

Benzene

Formaldehide

The Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)

Tobacco Smoke

Advantages of smoke quitting

Passive smoking risks

Considerations for smoke quitting

Conclusions and perspectives

Bibliography


 

 
Chapter 11.


DIET AND DISEASES

 
Summary

Introduction

A short story of human diet…

Considerations on human diet in history…

Some data on metabolism in humans and animals

Water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins.

Parts and functions of the digestive system

Physical activity and weight control

Obesity

Diet and cancer

Fibers reduce cancer risk

Antioxidants and phytochemical principles

Some fats increase cancer risk

Other dietary components can increase cancer risk

The most important anti-cancer rules

Conclusions

Bibliography


 

 
Chapter 12.


BSE AND PRIONS

 
Summary

Introduction

Animal encephalopaties

Human encephalopaties

Etiologic agents of spongiform encephalopaties

Diagnosis of of spongiform encephalopaties

Prion transmission modalities

An open problem: zootechnic food

Bibliography


 


Chapter 13.


SARS: a prototype for new infectious diseases

 
Summary

Introduction

Part I: Origin and nature of SARS

    1- First cases of SARS in South-East Asia

    2- The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and its symptoms

    3- Coronavirus : “cause of the disease”

    4- Communication modalities and risk subjects

    5- Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

Part II: SARS - ceased alarm?

    6- The present situation: is epidemics under control ?   

    7- Preventive measures and future perspectives   

    8– Latest news about SARS

    9- Conclusions: do not lower the level of attention

Bibliography


 


 
Chapter 14.


GMO - AGRICULTURE AND TRANSGENIC FOODS

 
Summary

Introduction

A short story

Genetically Modified Organisms and Food

GMOs in the world

GMO cultures in Italy

What Italians think about GMOs

Advantages and risks of GMOs

Social and economical impact

Environmental impact

Health impact

The new European rules about GMOs

Biologic agriculture

Advantages of biologic or sustainable agriculture

Conclusions

Bibliography


 

 
Chapter 15.


A new lifestyle, in order to be more eco-compatible and have better probability to save the planet ... and ourselves

Summary

Introduction

Visualize targets

Avoid waste accumulation

Recycling

Compost

How to save water

    -Check the hydraulic plant of our home

    -To wash ourselves ecologically

    -Bath or shower?

    -Simple measures to save with water toilet flush

    -To wash dishes ecologically

    -To adopt flow regulators

    -Use of rainwater

How to save electricity

    -Saving with home appliances

How to save thermal energy

How to save fuels

How to reduce home pollution

    -Poisons hidden in the house

    -Poisons used purpoosely

How to reduce the eletctrosmog

How to save forests

Suggestions for a healthy life

Appendix

Conclusions

Bibliography